Allergic reaction là gì


Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions khổng lồ things that are typically harmless to lớn most people. When you”re allergic to something, your immune system mistakenly believes that this substance is harmful khổng lồ your body.

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Your eyes itch, your nose is running, you”re sneezing, và you”re covered in hives. It”s allergy season again, và all you want to vì is curl up into a ball of misery.

There has to lớn be something you can bởi to feel better. After all, doctors seem lớn have a cure for everything, right? Not for allergies. But there are ways to lớn relieve allergy symptoms or avoid getting the symptoms, even though you can”t actually get rid of the allergies themselves.

What are allergies?

Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions lớn things that are typically harmless to most people. When you”re allergic to something, your immune system mistakenly believes that this substance is harmful to your body. (Substances that cause allergic reactions, such as certain foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines, are known as allergens.)

In an attempt lớn protect the body, the immune system produces IgE antibodies to lớn that allergen. Those antibodies then cause certain cells in the body toàn thân to release chemicals into the bloodstream, one of which is histamine.

The histamine then acts on the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, skin, or gastrointestinal tract and causes the symptoms of the allergic reaction. Future exposure khổng lồ that same allergen will trigger this antibody response again. This means that every time you come into liên hệ with that allergen, you”ll have an allergic reaction.

Allergic reactions can be mild, lượt thích a runny nose, or they can be severe, like difficulty breathing. An asthma attack, for example, is often an allergic reaction to lớn something that is breathed into the lungs by a person who is susceptible.

Some types of allergies produce multiple symptoms, và in rare cases, an allergic reaction can become very severe — this severe reaction is called anaphylaxis. Signs of anaphylaxis include difficulty breathing, difficulty swallowing, swelling of the lips, tongue, and throat or other parts of the body, and dizziness or loss of consciousness.

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Anaphylaxis usually occurs minutes after exposure lớn a triggering substance, such as a peanut, but some reactions might be delayed by as long as 4 hours. Luckily, anaphylactic reactions don”t occur often & can be treated successfully if proper medical procedures are followed.

Why vì chưng people get allergies?

The tendency khổng lồ develop allergies is often hereditary, which means it can be passed down through your genes. However, just because a parent or sibling has allergies doesn”t mean you will definitely get them, too. A person usually doesn”t inherit a particular allergy, just the likelihood of having allergies.

What things are people are allergic to?

Some of the most common allergens are:

Foods. Food allergies are most common in infants and often go away as people get older. Although some food allergies can be serious, many simply cause annoying symptoms lượt thích an itchy rash, a stuffy nose, and diarrhea. The foods that people are most commonly allergic to lớn are milk and other dairy products, eggs, wheat, soy, peanuts và tree nuts, and seafood.

Insect bites and stings. The venom (poison) in insect bites và stings can cause allergic reactions, and can be severe & even cause an anaphylactic reaction in some people.

Airborne particles. Often called environmental allergens, these are the most common allergens. Examples of airborne particles that can cause allergies are dust mites (tiny bugs that live in house dust); mold spores; animal dander (flakes of scaly, dried skin, & dried saliva from your pets); & pollen from grass, ragweed, & trees.

Medicines. Antibiotics — medications used khổng lồ treat infections — are the most common type of medicines that cause allergic reactions. Many other medicines, including over-the-counter medications (those you can buy without a prescription), also can cause allergic-type reactions.

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Chemicals. Some cosmetics or laundry detergents can make people break out in an itchy rash (hives). Usually, this is because someone has a reaction khổng lồ the chemicals in these products. Dyes, household cleaners, & pesticides used on lawns or plants also can cause allergic reactions in some people.

How bởi doctors diagnose và treat allergies?

If your family doctor suspects you might have an allergy, he or she might refer you lớn an allergist (a doctor who specializes in allergy treatment) for further testing. The allergist will ask you about your own allergy symptoms (such as how often they occur & when) and about whether any family members have allergies. The allergist also will perform tests to confirm an allergy — these will depend on the type of allergy someone has & may include a skin thử nghiệm or blood test.

The most complete way to lớn avoid allergic reactions is to stay away from the substances that cause them (called avoidance). Doctors can also treat some allergies using medications và allergy shots.


In some cases, like food allergies, avoiding the allergen is a life-saving necessity. That”s because, unlike allergies khổng lồ airborne particles that can be treated with shots or medications, the only way khổng lồ treat food allergies is to avoid the allergen entirely. For example, people who are allergic to peanuts should avoid not only peanuts, but also any food that might contain even tiny traces of them.

Avoidance can help protect people against non-food or chemical allergens, too. In fact, for some people, eliminating exposure to an allergen is enough lớn prevent allergy symptoms & they don”t need to lớn take medicines or go through other allergy treatments.

Here are some things that can help you avoid airborne allergens:

* Keep family pets out of certain rooms, lượt thích your bedroom, và bathe them if necessary.

* Remove carpets or rugs from your room (hard floor surfaces don”t collect dust as much as carpets do).

* Don”t hang heavy drapes & get rid of other items that allow dust to accumulate.

* Clean frequently (if your allergy is severe, you may be able to lớn get someone else to bởi vì your dirty work!)

* Use special covers khổng lồ seal pillows and mattresses if you”re allergic khổng lồ dust mites.

* If you”re allergic khổng lồ pollen, keep windows closed when pollen season”s at its peak, change your clothing after being outdoors — và don”t mow lawns.

* If you”re allergic lớn mold, avoid damp areas, such as basements, and keep bathrooms and other mold-prone areas clean and dry.


Medications such as pills or nasal sprays are often used to treat allergies. Although medications can control the allergy symptoms (such as sneezing, headaches, or a stuffy nose), they are not a cure & can”t make the tendency lớn have allergic reactions go away. Many effective medications are available to lớn treat common allergies, & your doctor can help you khổng lồ identify those that work for you.

Another type of medication that some severely allergic people will need to have on hand is a shot of epinephrine, a fast-acting medicine that can help offset an anaphylactic reaction. This medicine comes in an easy-to-carry container that looks like a pen. Epinephrine is available by prescription only. If you have a severe allergy & your doctor thinks you should carry it, he or she will give you instructions on how to lớn use it.


Allergy shots are also referred khổng lồ as allergen immunotherapy. By receiving injections of small amounts of an allergen, your toàn thân can gradually develop antibodies và undergo other immune system changes that help reduce the reaction to that allergen.

Immunotherapy is only recommended for specific allergies, such as allergies to things you might breathe in (like pollen, pet dander, or dust mites) or insect allergies. Immunotherapy doesn”t help with some allergies, lượt thích food allergies.

Although many people find the thought of allergy shots unsettling, shots can be highly effective — & it doesn”t take long lớn get used to lớn them. Often, the earlier someone receives allergy shots, the more they help the body build up antibodies that fight the allergies. Although the shots don”t cure allergies, they bởi vì tend to raise a person”s tolerance when exposed to the allergen, which means fewer or less severe symptoms.

If you”re severely allergic to lớn bites & stings, talk to a doctor about getting venom immunotherapy (shots) from an allergist.

Is it a cold or allergies?

If the spring and summer seasons leave you sneezing và wheezing, you might have allergies. Colds, on the other hand, are more likely lớn occur at any time (though they”re more common in the colder months).

Colds and allergies produce similar symptoms, but colds usually last only a week or so. And although both may cause your nose & eyes khổng lồ itch, colds và other viral infections can also cause a fever, aches and pains, và colored mucus. Cold symptoms often worsen as the days go on và then gradually improve, but allergies begin immediately after exposure to the offending allergen và last as long as that exposure continues.

If you”re not sure whether your symptoms are caused by allergies or a cold, talk with your doctor.

Dealing with allergies

So once you know you have allergies, how vị you giảm giá khuyến mãi with them? First and foremost, try to lớn avoid things you”re allergic to!

If you have a food allergy, that means avoiding foods that trigger symptoms và learning how to read food labels to lớn make sure you”re not consuming even tiny amounts of allergens. People with environmental allergies should keep their house clean of dust và pet dander and watch the weather for days when pollen is high. Switching khổng lồ perfume-free & dye-free detergents, cosmetics, & beauty products (you may see non-allergenic ingredients listed as hypoallergenic on sản phẩm labels) also can help.

If you”re taking medication, follow the directions carefully and make sure your regular doctor is aware of anything an allergist gives you (like shots or prescriptions). If you have a severe allergy, consider wearing a medical emergency ID (such as a MedicAlert bracelet), which will explain your allergy and who to tương tác in case of an emergency.

If you”ve been diagnosed with allergies, you have a lot of company. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) report that more than 50 million Americans are affected by allergic diseases. The good news is that doctors & scientists are working to better understand allergies, to improve treatment methods, và to possibly prevent allergies as well.